A colleague of gmtlight asked, how many meters is the deepest part of the sea?
The deepest part of the sea is located in the fichaz abyss of the Mariana Trench, with a depth of 11034 meters, which is recognized as the lowest point in the world by world scientists. The Chinese deep-sea probe Jiaolong once visited here.
The Mariana Trench is located to the east of the Mariana Islands in the Western Pacific Ocean, starting from the sulfur islands in the north, passing through Saipan Island and the east of Guam, and ending near Yap Island. It is about 2550 km long, 70 km wide at the widest, and more than 8000 meters deep. It is the deepest trench in the world. According to the analysis of scientists, the trench has been formed for 60 million years.
A trench is a deep, narrow depression on the ocean floor or seafloor. It is generally distributed outside the oceanic island arc. The depth is more than 6000 meters, the length can reach thousands of kilometers, and the upper part is generally about 100 kilometers wide. It is wide in the top and narrow in the bottom, with V-shaped cross section and steep slope on both sides. The deepest part of the trench is called the "abyss", usually named after the ship found. Located at the depth of Mariana Trench in the Western Pacific Ocean, the fischaz abyss is 11034 meters, which is the deepest point known in the world ocean.
It is generally believed that the formation of trench is due to the collision between Ocean plate and continental plate. The density of rocks in the ocean plate is high and the position is low. After the ocean plate subducted and inserted into the continental plate, it gradually melted and died out after entering the mantle. The trench will be formed where the collision occurs.
According to scientists' estimation, the Mariana Trench was formed by the continuous compression and collision of the two largest plates on the earth, the Eurasian plate and the Pacific plate. The Pacific plate subducted and inserted under the Eurasian plate, and then continued to sink, forming a trench at the place where the collision occurred, and uplifted to form coastal mountains on the side close to the continent. This is how the Mariana Trench was formed.
The challenger, a British scientific research vessel, has accumulated rich experience since it began the world's first round the world ocean expedition in 1872. In 1951, they came to Mariana again to measure the depth of the trench. The depth of the trench was measured by echo location at 11 ° 19 'n and 142 ° 15' e, and a depth of 10900 meters was obtained. In this way, the probe sends the sound wave repeatedly through the depth change, and then uses the headset to capture the echo, and completes the timing with the hand-held code meter.
In January 1960, the U.S. Navy used the French made "Trieste" deep-sea probe to carry out a new exploration of the Mariana Trench, and scientific researchers took the "Trieste" to dive. This is also the first time for human beings to dive to the bottom of the Mariana Trench for scientific investigation. It's a challenge for human beings because of the huge water pressure of 1100 atmospheres at the bottom of the trench. During the 9-hour exploration, the researchers only stayed at the bottom of the ocean for about 20 minutes and measured a depth of 10916 meters. What's exciting is that in such a deep sea, researchers have found fish and shrimps swimming, which indicates that there are advanced organisms living in the deep ocean.
In June 2012, China completed its first deep-sea exploration of the Mariana Trench. China uses its own deep-sea probe, Jiaolong. A total of six dives were completed, with depths of 6671m, 6965m, 6963m, 7020m, 7062m and 7035m respectively. Each dive was carried out according to the scheduled plan and task. China has become one of the few countries including the United Kingdom, Russia, the United States, France and Japan that have completed deep-sea exploration in the Mariana Trench.
Mariana Trench with deapth 11034 meters, remember?