In recent years, Mars has become the focus of space exploration, and we are also paying attention to Musk's idea of Mars migration. How far is Mars from the earth?
The nearest distance from Mars to earth is about 55million kilometers, and the longest distance is more than 400million kilometers. Close contact between the two occurs about every 15 years. In 1988, the distance between Mars and earth reached about 58.8 million kilometers, while in 2018, the distance between the two reached 57.6 million kilometers. However, on August 27, 2003, the distance between Mars and the earth was only about 55.76 million kilometers, the latest in 60000 years. However, according to the calculation of astronomers, during the 800 years from 1600 to 2400, the close distance between Mars and the earth can only rank third. According to the calculation results, the distance between the two will be about 55.71 million kilometers by September 2, 2366. On August 28, 2287, the two countries will be closer, with a distance of about 55.69 million kilometers.
Mars (English: Mars; Latin: Martis; astronomical symbol: ♂）， It is the fourth closest planet to the sun and the second smallest planet in the solar system after mercury. It is one of the four earth like planets in the solar system.
In ancient Europe, Mars was called "Mars" and the "God of war" in ancient Roman mythology was also called "red planet". In ancient Chinese, it is called "yinghun" because it is as bright as fire, and its position and brightness often change.
Its orange appearance is because the surface is covered with hematite (iron oxide). The diameter of Mars is about half of that of the earth. The inclination and rotation period of the rotation axis are similar to that of the earth, but the rotation period is twice that of the earth. Mars is as bright as -2.9, but it is darker than Jupiter most of the time.
The Martian atmosphere is dominated by carbon dioxide (95.3%), which is thin and cold. It is full of impact craters, canyons, sand dunes and gravel, and there is no stable liquid water. The southern hemisphere is an ancient highland full of impact craters, while the northern hemisphere is a younger lowland plain. Mars has the largest known mountain in the solar system - Olympus mountain and the largest canyon - mariner canyon. Mars has two natural moons, Phobos and Phobos, which are irregular in shape and may be captured asteroids. According to the observed evidence, a similar phenomenon of groundwater gushing was observed on Mars, and the Antarctic ice cap retreated partially. Radar data showed that there was a large amount of water ice under the surface at the poles and mid latitudes.
Mars has four orbiting probes launched by NASA and Europe, namely Odyssey, Mars Express, Mars Global Surveyor and Maven. There are also many American Mars rovers on the surface, such as curiosity, insight, and the Mars Pathfinder, Phoenix, courage, and opportunity, which ended their missions.
On May 15, 2021, the scientific research team confirmed according to the telemetry signal sent back by the "zhurong" Mars rover that the "tianwen-1" landing patrol successfully landed in the pre selected landing area, which is also China's first Mars exploration mission.