【gmtlight】College entrance examination,we can call it Chinese SAT, deeply affects the life of every Chinese，I am one of them. Here I will introduce the biggest and most important examination in China.
In 2020, the number of college entrance examination participants is 10.71 million.
The general college entrance examination is a system for colleges and universities to select new students. China has a history of more than 1300 years of imperial examinations. This system has shown the superiority of selecting talents and deeply influenced the countries in East Asia. In 1905, in order to develop new education and train practical talents, the Qing government abolished the imperial examination system and introduced the western school examination system. The establishment of China's modern college entrance examination system has two important sources: one is the traditional examination thinking and value formed by the imperial examination system; the other is the mode and means of the western modern examination system.
In 1904, the Qing government, under the leadership of Zhang Zhidong and others, promulgated the constitution of the school of recitation.
In 1905, the imperial examination system died. From then on, China's modern college entrance examination system stepped onto the historical stage.
In 1936, there were more than 100 universities in China. At that time, the college entrance examination system was organized by each university independently. Students could choose to apply for examination in multiple universities or be admitted by multiple universities at the same time.
In 1952, China established a nationwide unified enrollment system for ordinary colleges and universities. Unified college entrance examination enrollment can better show fairness, and also adapt to the needs of the country's rapid selection of talents at that time.
In 1977, Deng Xiaoping took the post of vice premier of the state, in charge of culture and education, and presided over the resumption of the college entrance examination. The resumption of the college entrance examination has changed the fate of millions of people, saved China's education and saved the whole country.
On October 21, 1977, the first examination was held after the resumption of the college entrance examination. The examination was divided into two subjects: literature and history and science and engineering. The subjects of literature and history were politics, Chinese, mathematics, history and Geography (history and Geography). The subjects of science and Engineering were politics, Chinese, mathematics, physics and Chemistry (Physics and Chemistry). Foreign languages for foreign language majors should be added to the examination.
In 1981, English was included in the examination subject, 30% of which was included in the total score or reference. In addition, the formation of the six principles and seven patterns of biological science was added to science until 1994.
In 1983, the Ministry of Education formally proposed the method of "targeted enrollment, targeted distribution". It is stipulated that in some ordinary institutions of higher learning affiliated to the central department or the national defense science and engineering commission system, targeted enrollment should be conducted in certain proportion to the rural areas or the hard industries such as farms, pastures, mining areas and oil fields.
In 1983, foreign languages (English, Russian, Japanese, German, French, Spanish, which can be freely chosen when registering for the college entrance examination, generally English) were officially included in the subjects of the college entrance examination, with the original score included in the total score.
In 1985, the Ministry of education stipulated that a small number of students at their own expense not covered by the national plan could be enrolled from the candidates who participated in the unified college entrance examination. It has always been a "double track system" in which the state plans to enroll students without charge and the state regulates the enrollment with charge. In the same year, the standardized examination was introduced from the United States, and in that year, the first two subjects of English and mathematics were piloted in Guangdong Province.
In 1985, Shanghai was the first country to obtain the right of independent proposition. In the same year, the State Education Commission decided to carry out a pilot program of enrolling and sending students to 43 ordinary colleges and universities, including Peking University.
In August 1989, the State Education Commission decided to gradually carry out standardized examinations throughout the country.
In 1994, the general college entrance examination carried out system reform and launched the "3 + 2" examination system. Biology and geography subjects were cancelled. In addition to language number, politics and history were added to the liberal arts examination, physics and chemistry were added to the science examination, and politics was no longer taken in the science examination. The original intention is to reduce the burden for students, but it leads to the lack of geographical and biological knowledge.
In 1996, China's Higher Education tried to recruit students on the same track, and college tuition began to increase.
In 1997, the reform of college enrollment was carried out.
In 1999, the Ministry of Education issued the action plan for revitalizing education in the 21st century. According to the document, the grand goal and task of the cross century socialist modernization construction have made a comprehensive deployment for the implementation of the strategy of invigorating the country through science and education  in the same year, Guangdong took the lead in trying out the "3 + X" reform plan, and biology and geography began to appear again in the subjects of college entrance examination. From this year, the large-scale enrollment expansion of colleges and universities began.
In 2000, the national "all inclusive" normal major also carried out the charge, and the reform of enrollment was completed.
Before 2000, the national unified test paper with unified proposition was used in the national college entrance examination in China. From 2001 to 2004, the organization mode of "unified college entrance examination, provincial proposition" was implemented nationwide, and more and more provinces joined the ranks of independent proposition.
In 2001, the Ministry of education further relaxed the conditions for candidates to apply for the national unified examination for enrollment of ordinary colleges and universities. The restrictions on college entrance examination applicants who are not over 25 years old and unmarried have been removed. Graduates from secondary vocational schools are no longer limited to higher vocational schools, but also to ordinary colleges and universities. It is an important measure of life-long education system to apply for and take part in the general college entrance examination, which will not be limited and affected by age and marriage. So far, there are over 25 year olds entering the college entrance examination every year all over the country.
In 2003, with the approval of the State Council, the Ministry of Education decided to advance the time of the college entrance examination by one month from 2003. The time of the college entrance examination is fixed on June 7, 8 and 9 every year.
In 2003, the Ministry of Education approved the first batch of 22 universities to carry out independent enrollment pilot. As a new way of talent selection, there are 90 colleges and universities with independent enrollment qualification, and the types are gradually increasing, including "independent organization test", "President real name recommendation system", "independent enrollment joint examination" and other forms.
In 2010, the enrollment rate of general higher education will reach 15% of that of school-age youth. In a short period of five or six years, university enrollment has expanded nearly three times, and "popular education" has gradually replaced "elite education"
In September 2014, the implementation opinions of the State Council on deepening the reform of the examination and enrollment system pointed out that it is necessary to "create conditions for the gradual cancellation of college enrollment batches.". Since 2015, we have carried out the pilot reform of admission batches in the provinces where conditions permit. ".
On December 16 and 17, 2014, the Ministry of education successively issued four major reforms of college entrance examination, including the opinions on strengthening and improving the comprehensive quality evaluation of senior high school students, the opinions on the implementation of the academic level examination of senior high school, the opinions on further improving and standardizing the pilot work of independent enrollment in Colleges and universities, and the opinions on further reducing and standardizing the bonus items and scores of college entrance examination Set of programs.
In 2014, there were 16 provinces and cities implementing the provincial proposition, and there were 15 unified proposition; in 2015, Jiangxi, Liaoning and Shandong provinces added to implement the unified proposition of college entrance examination, and the number of provinces using the national unified proposition increased to 18.
In 2016, 26 provinces in China chose the unified proposition, that is, "general college entrance examination national paper test", and 5 provinces of Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Jiangsu and Zhejiang are still provincial proposition.
On March 21, 2018, the Ministry of Education issued the notice on doing a good job in the enrollment of general colleges and universities in 2018 to make arrangements for the enrollment of colleges and universities in 2018. According to the notice, in order to further improve the enrollment rate of college entrance examination in the central and western regions and provinces with large population, the colleges and Universities Affiliated to the central department should incline to the provinces with relatively low enrollment rate of key colleges and universities, and comprehensively cancel the national college entrance examination bonus items such as sports specialty students, middle school students' subject Olympic competition, science and technology competition, provincial excellent students, and outstanding deeds of Ideological and political morality.
On May 6, 2019, the national college entrance examination security work teleconference was held in 2019. Chen Baosheng, Secretary of the Party group and Minister of the Ministry of education, revealed at the meeting that there were tens of millions of college entrance examination applicants in 2019. The national unified examination for enrollment of ordinary colleges and universities in 2019 was held from June 7 to 9, 2019, with 10.31 million applicants.
In 2020, the number of applicants for the national college entrance examination is 10.71 million. Due to the impact of the novel coronavirus, the time of college entrance examination was delayed, but it could not be cancelled. Because more than 10 million people have been preparing for more than ten years, they are waiting for the day to come.